Social Protection Measures on Health and Prevention of Violence Against Women
Brief summary of presentation of information made
Mary Ellsberg (Director of the Global Women’s Institute, George Washington University)
- 20 years ago, statistics about violence against women started to be collected.
- Usually men who have been injured or killed by violence are found in public places like pubs but when women murdered, often nobody knows. Often the crimes are committed by family members.
- Women exposed to intimate partner violence are twice as likely to face mental health problems than other victims.
- In domestic violence cases, 42 per cent of women are killed or injured and are likely to be exposed to the HIV viruses.
- Domestic violence affects the productivity of women. In Tanzania women who are severely physically or sexually abused by a partner earn 53 per cent less than women who have never been abused.
An integrated approach to ending violence against women means
- Access to Justice
- Support Services for Survivors
- Violence Prevention.
Gertrude Mogella (Former member of the Regional Reproduction Health Task Force for the World Health Organization's African Region)
Programs preventing violence need to:
- Include men and women
- Engage the entire community
- Combine multiple approaches as part of a single intervention
- Take six months or longer to educate the community about violence against women
- Address social norms regarding acceptability of violence
Yoon Sooyoung focused on women’s health movement
- Half of the world’s population still does not have full coverage of essential health services
- About 100 million people are still pushed into “extreme poverty” because of medical bills
- Nearly 40 per cent of all pregnant women do not receive early antenatal care
- Sexual violence continues to go unpunished in many conflict and post-conflict countries, even though the Security Council has strongly condemned sexual violence as a weapon of war
Mohinder Watson (Founder of Action of Child, Early and Forced Marriage)
Violence Against Women (VAW) across the life course: childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age including refugees, and those with disabilities.
- Women are in greater need of social protection, but not as able to access it. As a result, women have less income and assets and are in greater need of support from the state but often they are not able to access support.
- 55 per cent of the global population does not have social protection. Women and girls are exposed to violence in public and private spaces.
- In 2017, 87,000 women were deliberately killed (60 per cent by an intimate partner or family member).
- Women and girls face sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace.
- UNFPA study showed 90 per cent of women is Sri Lanka face sexual harassment on public transport on their way to work.
- There are other forms of VAW such as child marriage, trafficking, kidnapping for sexual slavery, cyber stalking, bullying, abuse, threats, online dating violence, femicide, FGM.
- Why should we stop child marriage?
- Violation of human rights
- It is a form of child abuse and a harmful traditional practice
- Leads to a public health problem
- Adverse effects on health -premature parenthood, child and maternal health, increases fertility, HIV risks, and violence and abuse
- Girls cannot complete schooling, have less of a chance of entering labour market and contributing to family’s economic wellbeing
- Overall leads to low status, decreased independence, social isolation, greater risk of violence and poverty.
- Social protection measures to address child marriage. The aim is to keep girls in school, so they become educated, obtain employment and become economically
productive and independent.
Junhui Joo (President of Women’s Institute for Negotiation & Leadership) presented social protection against domestic violence and its solutions.
- Gender-based violence (GBV) or violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a global pandemic that will affect 1 in 3 women in their life time.
- 35 per cent of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence.
- Globally, 7 per cent of women have been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner.
- 200 million women have experienced female genital mutilation.
Decreasing violence against women and girls requires a community-based, multi-pronged approach, and sustained engagement with multiple stakeholders. The most effective initiatives address underlying risk factors for violence, including social norms regarding gender roles and the acceptability of violence, and grooming works by mixing positive behaviours with elements of abuse. As time passes, actions that would previously be perceived as inappropriate have become normalised.
Since it is difficult for elderly women to obtain employment, this is a form of economic violence. It is becoming serious in aged societies. Older women are more likely to experience high levels of exclusion and discrimination.
Is there no self-defence for the for the victims from the violence? In Korea, about 4 million people are victims of domestic violence. 500,000 feel threats to their life. Only 1 per cent of the cases are reported and out of that 1 percent, only 10 per cent of the cases are prosecuted. 30 per cent of women who have killed their abusive husband out of self-defence are sentenced to life imprisonment in Korea.
The solution for the family has started in some countries. Domestic violence victims do not have to provide proof of their circumstances and will also be entitled to fast-tracked flexible work conditions designed to ensure their safety.
- The Australian government announced it would introduce legislation entitling workers to five days unpaid leave to deal with a family violence situation
- New Zealand offers paid domestic violence leave, legislation granting victims of domestic violence 10 days paid leave to allow them to leave their partners, find new homes and protect themselves.
- The Philippines, whose Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004 includes provision for victims to take up to 10 days’ special leave.
What was of particular significance to share with The Salvation Army globally?
The Salvation Army have many shelters and rehabilitation for victims of domestic violence in every territory, but prevention and protection education, and detailed programs are needed for boys and girls, men and women at corps and centres. We need to think more about how we can teach, and develop young boys to grow in to men who respect women and see their intrinsic value. Education can be a powerful tool in the protection and prevention of violence and crime in a community.